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Growth Factor Products by Family

Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 bind to Tie-2 and function in a context-dependent manner to regulate angiogenesis

Angiopoietins

• Members of the Angiopoietin family of growth factors include Ang-1, Ang-2, Ang-3 (mouse)/Ang-4 (human)

Angiopoietins signal through the Tie-1 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is primarily expressed on endothelial cells and early hematopoietic cells

• Angiopoietin-Tie signaling plays an important role in angiogenesis by regulating processes such as endothelial cell differentiation, vessel stabilization and remodeling, and pericyte recruitment

EGF binding to EGF R regulates processes such as cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation during development

EGF Family

• Members of the EGF family include EGF, Amphiregulin, Betacellulin, Epigen, Epiregulin, HB-EGF, Neuregulins, and TGF-alpha

• The EGF R (ErbB) family consists of four closely related receptor tyrosine kinases: EGF R (ErbB1), ErbB2 (Her2), ErbB3 (Her3), and ErbB4 (Her4)

• EGF family ligands stimulate cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation and play an important role in many developmental processes

Eph-Ephrin interactions are involved in regulating cell migration, tissue morphogenesis, axon guidance, and angiogenesis

Ephrins

• Ephrins and their receptor tyrosine kinase receptors, Ephs, are divided into two classes, the Ephrin-A and Ephrin-B ligand families

• Ephrin-A ligands (EphrinA1-5) preferentially bind to EphA receptors (EphA1-8), while Ephrin-B ligands (EphrinB1-3) preferentially bind to EphB receptors (EphB1-6)

• Eph-Ephrin interactions are involved in regulating cell migration, tissue morphogenesis, axon guidance, and angiogenesis

FGFs signal through FGF receptors and regulate processes essential for embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis

FGF Superfamily

• There are 22 FGF proteins in human and mice, 18 are secreted proteins and 4 are intracellular FGFs

• Secreted FGFs bind to one of four receptor tyrosine kinases (FGFR1-4) to promote intracellular signaling

• FGFs promote a broad range of cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, differentiation, and migration, and are essential for both embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis

Hedgehog proteins bind to the Patched receptor, which transmits a signal to Smoothened to regulate Gli-mediated transcription

Hedgehog Family

• In vertebrates, the Hedgehog family consists of at least three proteins: Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Desert hedgehog (Dhh), and Indian hedgehog (Ihh)

• Secreted hedgehog proteins bind to the Patched receptor, which transmits a signal to Smoothened resulting in Gli-mediated transcriptional activation

• Shh signaling is required for hematopoiesis, bone formation, neurogenesis, and gonad development

IGF signaling plays an important role in mediating cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, development, and metabolism

IGF Family

Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II belong to the family of insulin-like growth factors

• IGF-I and IGF-II primarily exert their effects through IGF-I R, which is a disulfide-linked, heterotetrameric tyrosine kinase receptor

•  IGF signaling plays an important role in mediating cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, development, and metabolism

NGF signals through two receptors, p75NTR and TrkA to regulate the development, survival, and maintenance of target neurons

Neurotrophin Family

• Members of the Neurotrophin family include NGF, BDNF, Neurotrophin-3, and Neurotrophin-4

• Neurotrophins mediate their effects by binding to different receptors: the p75 neurotrophin receptor (NGF R), Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC), and Sortilin

• Neurotrophins are growth factors that regulate the development, survival, and maintenance of neurons in the both the central and peripheral nervous systems

Notch activation leads to cleavage and translocation of its intracellular domain to the nucleus, where it drives transcription

Notch Family

• Mammalian Notch ligands include the transmembrane proteins, DLL-1, DLL-3, DLL-4, Jagged 1, and Jagged 2

• Notch family receptors, Notch-1-4, are type I transmembrane proteins with intracellular domains that are cleaved following ligand-binding and translocate to the nucleus to regulate transcription

• Notch signaling regulates cell fate determination, cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and T cell-mediated immune responses   

PDGFs differentially bind homodimer and heterodimers of two receptor tyrosine kinases, PDGF R alpha and PDGF R beta

PDGF Family

• PDGFs are produced from four different genes and are secreted as disulfide-linked homodimers with identical subunits, PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, PDGF-CC, PDGF-DD, or as PDGF-AB heterodimers

• PDGFs differentially bind homodimer and heterodimer combinations of two receptor tyrosine kinases, PDGF R alpha and PDGF R beta

• PDGFs regulate cell survival, proliferation, and migration during development and wound healing

TGF-beta signals through a receptor complex consisting of type I and II receptors with serine/threonine kinase domains

TGF-beta Superfamily

• Mammalian members of the TGF-beta superfamily include TGF-beta1-3, Activins, Inhibins, BMPs, GDFs, GDNFs, Nodal, Lefty, and MIS

• TGF-beta superfamily ligands form dimers and signal through heteromeric transmembrane receptor complexes consisting of type I and type II receptors with serine/threonine kinase domains

• TGF-beta superfamily proteins regulate cell growth, survival, differentiation, apoptosis, pattern formation, morphogenesis, and adult tissue homeostasis

VEGF binds to VEGF R and promotes cell proliferation, survival, and migration during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis

VEGF Family

• Members of the VEGF family include VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, viral VEGF-E, and PlGF

• VEGFs signal through one of three VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, VEGF R1, VEGF R2, or VEGF R3, and can also bind to HSPGs and Neuropilin-1 and Neuropilin-2 to modulate VEGF signaling

• VEGF signaling promotes cell proliferation, survival, and migration during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and is important for development and wound healing

 The beta-Catenin-dependent Wnt signaling pathway is initiated by association of Wnt with the Frizzled and LRP-5/6 receptors

Wnt Superfamily

• In vertebrates, the Wnt family consists of 19 highly conserved, secreted glycoproteins

• Wnts can initiate beta-Catenin-dependent or beta-Catenin-independent signaling pathways through interactions with G protein-coupled Frizzled receptors and the co-receptors, LRP5/6, ROR1/2, Ryk, or PTK7

• Wnt signaling plays a central role in cell proliferation, motility, and differentiation during both embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis

R&D Systems Growth Factors Are Frequently More Active than Leading Competitors' Proteins

Comparison of the bioactivity of R&D Systems Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1 with a leading competitor’s R-Spondin protein

R&D Systems Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1 Protein Displays Higher Activity than a Leading Competitor’s Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1. The bioactivity of R&D Systems Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1 (Catalog # 4645-RS; blue line) or recombinant human R-Spondin 1 from another company (purple line) was assessed by measuring the ability of the proteins to stimulate beta-Catenin activation in the HEK293T human kidney cell line using a TOPflash beta-Catenin/TCF reporter assay, in the presence of 5 ng/mL Recombinant Mouse Wnt-3a (R&D Systems, Catalog # 1324-WN). The ED50 for this effect for R&D Systems Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1 was approximately 7-fold greater than the leading competitor’s R-Spondin 1 protein.

R&D Systems Proteins Are Rigorously Tested for Lot-to-Lot Consistency

Analysis of the lot-to-lot consistency of R&D Systems Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1 protein

R&D Systems Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1 Displays Minimal Lot-to-Lot Variability. Three independent lots of Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1 (R&D Systems, Catalog # 4645-RS) were tested for their ability to stimulate beta-Catenin activation in the HEK293T human kidney cell line using a TOPflash beta-Catenin/TCF reporter assay, in the presence of 5 ng/mL Recombinant Mouse Wnt-3a (R&D Systems, Catalog # 1324-WN). Each trace on the graph represents data obtained from Recombinant Human R-Spondin 1 from a different manufacturing run, demonstrating the lot-to-lot consistency of the protein.

Customer Success Stories

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To simplify the transition from basic research to preclinical applications and ex vivo cell manufacturing, we offer research-grade, preclinical Animal-Free, and Animal-Free GMP-grade cytokines and growth factors. Our GMP-grade proteins frequently originate from the same clone, sequence, and expression system as our traditional research-grade proteins to make the switch to GMP as seamless as possible.

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From our complete, ready-to-use Quantikine™ ELISA Kits to our multiplex Luminex® Assays and fully automated Simple Plex™ Assays, you can count on our immunoassays to deliver accurate, reproducible, high-quality data for every experimental sample that you test.

Featured Growth Factor Resources

FGFs signal through FGF receptors and regulate processes essential for embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis

Growth Factor Signaling Pathways

Growth factors activate intracellular signaling pathways that regulate a diverse range of biological processes, including development, cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, angiogenesis, and adult tissue homeostasis. Explore the signaling pathways that are activated by different growth factor families and the biological effects that they mediate using our interactive signaling pathways.

A thumbnail graphic of the periodic table of human developmental factors wall poster

Periodic Table of Human Developmental Factors Wall Poster

Learn about the different families of growth factors and morphogens that regulate human development with our Periodic Table of Human Developmental Factors wall poster. The poster includes information on the structures, native molecular weights, and receptors of each protein and will serve as a great reference tool to keep in your lab or office space.

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Cell Culture Reagents

Browse our complete collection of products for cell culture. We offer a comprehensive range of reagents to promote robust cell growth, including media and supplements, FBS, basement membrane extracts, and custom cell culture services.