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Cell Biology Research Products and Resources

Cell biology research focuses on the study of cellular organelles, cellular functions and processes, interdependencies between cell types, cell signaling, the cell cycle, and cell division. Owing to cellular complexity, the study of cell biology encompasses many disciplines including physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, developmental and molecular biology.

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Immunocytochemistry (ICC)/immunofluorescence confocal analysis of C6 cells using alpha Tubulin antibody

Cell Biology Research Tools and Resources

Background

Cell Cycle | Cell Signaling | Cell Biology and Disease 

 

Cell Cycle and Replication

The cell cycle consists of a regulatory network of proteins that controls the order and timing of cellular proliferation events. The cell cycle is an essential process, enabling cellular replication and growth and renewal of an organism. The cell cycle of eukaryotic cells consists of four phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase and M phase. Cells increase in size during G1 phase, which is followed by DNA replication in S phase. Protein synthesis and the production of microtubules occurs during G2 phase, which is then followed by mitosis. Mitosis is the briefest phase of the cell cycle; during this period, nuclear and cytoplasmic division occurs, concluding with cytokinesis. When cells are not actively dividing they are considered to be in a state of quiescence, known as the G0 phase. The passage of a cell through the cell cycle is controlled by various cytoplasmic proteins in order to assure quality control.

 

Cell Signaling 

Cell signaling, or signal transduction, is the process by which an extracellular or intracellular stimulus is transformed via a series of biochemical events into cellular response. There are different types of stimuli, such as a change in cellular membrane potential due to movement of ions across the membrane, or binding of a ligand to a receptor. Signal transduction pathways amplify the incoming signal via a signaling cascade using a network of enzymes that act on one another in specific ways to ultimately generate a precise and appropriate physiological response by the cell. Signal transduction involves altering the behavior of proteins in the cascade, in effect switching them on or off. Adding or removing phosphates is a fundamental mechanism for altering the shape, and therefore the behavior, of a protein. 

 

Cell Biology and Disease

Cellular processes form a fundamental system that involves complicated cascades of biochemical reactions and signaling pathways. In order for proper cell function, these processes are required to be tightly controlled. Dysregulation of any element of these pathways, from over- or underactivity of an enzyme, increase or decrease in the level of a protein, to under- or overexpression of an ion channel, can lead to a vast array of human pathologies. These include cancermetabolic diseases,  cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative conditions.