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The cardiovascular system is a network of circulatory vessels throughout the human body. This network is a vital for nutrient delivery, oxygen transportation, and waste removal. The cardiovascular system develops during embryogenesis and undergoes adaptation and remodeling during events which affect vascular networks and structures like wound healing, pregnancy, and disease. Learn more about this system with topics like angiogenesis, the cells of the cardiovascular system, coagulation, hypertension research, and the vasculature in inflammation.

Angiogenesis

Uncover novel aspects of the sprouting and extension of new blood vessels as they move toward underserved tissues. Angiogenesis is a key process in embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer.

How New Blood Vessels Extend through Angiogenesis

Cells of the Cardiovascular System

Dissect the functions of cardiomyocytes in the heart plus endothelial, smooth muscle, and pericytes in the vascular and lymphatic systems.

Diagram of Cells of the Cardiovascular System

Coagulation

Pick apart the proteolytic cascade that results in fibrin clot formation. It’s required to limit blood loss during injury but can be life threatening in atherosclerosis, stroke, and deep vein thrombosis.

Fibrin Clot Formation and Coagulation by Proteolytic Cascade

Hypertension Research

Get a better handle on blood pressure control by the heart, vasculature, kidneys, and brain. Peptide hormones and neurotransmitters work together to regulate vascular resistance, cardiac output, and ion homeostasis.

How Hypertension and High Blood Pressure Affect the Renin-Angiotensin System, Critical Organs, and Cellular Structures

The Vasculature in Inflammation

Explore the nuances of inflammatory mediator production by vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. These molecules promote the attraction and activation of immune cells and the progression of inflammatory responses.

How Inflammation Affects Cellular Vasculature

The Cardiovascular Brochure

The cardiovascular system is vital for nutrient delivery and waste removal throughout the body. It develops during embryogenesis and undergoes remodeling during wound healing, pregnancy, and disease. Vasculogenesis (the formation of primary vessels) and angiogenesis (the extension and remodeling of existing vessels) are critical processes for vascular maintenance. Multiple cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke, hypertension, venous thrombosis, diabetes, cardiomyopathy, and arrythmias are some of the most widespread health concerns in our society.

Synchronized contraction of cardiomyocytes provides the force that pumps blood through arteries, veins, and capillaries, while lymphatic vessels return interstitial fluid to the system. The heart and vessels are lined with endothelial cells (EC) that mediate solute transport, respond to circulating factors, and serve as a barrier between the blood and tissues. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) lie in the medial layer of arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels. Especially in muscular arteries, this layer provides physical strength and plays a central role in blood pressure regulation. Vessels are also supported by elastic membrane layers that help accommodate pressure changes during pulsatile blood flow.

During inflammation, endothelial cells upregulate adhesion proteins that mediate the trapping of immune cells which then extravasate across the barrier to reach sites of tissue damage or infection. The lymphatic system carries activated leukocytes back to the circulation for systemic immune protection. Physical damage to the vasculature triggers activation of the coagulation cascade to induce clot formation and minimize blood loss. Hypertension can result from multiple factors including endocrine and sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, kidney damage, and a loss of vascular stiffness.

Cardiovascular Biology Atherosclerosis Disease Progression Diagram