Skip to main content

Blood and lymphatic vessels are populated by endothelial and smooth muscle cells arranged in concentric layers separated by fibrous sheaths. The heart’s muscular wall is comprised of cardiomyocytes lined with endothelial cells. The cells of the cardiovascular system include endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, and atherosclerosis cells. Each of these cells plays a critical role in circulating, maintaining, and supporting cardiovascular activity, perfusion, and system development.

Endothelial Cells

Vascular endothelial cells form a monolayer that lines blood and lymphatic vessels. They mediate the uptake of circulating nutrients and hormones and the attachment of leukocytes during inflammation. The vascular endothelium is heterogeneous between tissues which allows for functional specialization. During angiogenesis, endothelial cells proliferate and acquire the characteristics of tip and stalk cells along the vessel sprout. Endothelial damage leads to barrier dysfunction and inflammation in atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer.

Endothelial Cells - VE-Cadherin Staining in HUVEC Cells
VE-Cadherin Staining in HUVEC Cells

Multianalyte Immunoassays

These assay platforms let you detect many proteins in one experiment. They cover secreted factors, shed soluble receptors, and intracellular molecules. These assays are optimized to detect analytes with high sensitivity, low background, and minimal cross-reactivity.

Vascular Smooth Muscle

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of the tunica media form a contractile support enclosing the vascular endothelium. They provide mechanical strength and elasticity, regulate vascular tone and resistance, and anchor vessels to the extracellular matrix. Osteoblastic VSMC differentiation leads to vessel wall calcification and stiffness which contribute to disease progression in hypertension and atherosclerosis. Mural cells reside in the microvasculature where they provide endothelial support and contractile function. They are phenotypically heterogeneous, with characteristics of both VSMC and fibroblast-like pericytes.

Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells - Alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin Staining in Mouse Aortic Sinus
Alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin Staining in Mouse Aortic Sinus

Multianalyte Immunoassays

These assay platforms let you detect many proteins in one experiment. They cover secreted factors, shed soluble receptors, and intracellular molecules. These assays are optimized to detect analytes with high sensitivity, low background, and minimal cross-reactivity.

Lymphatics

Lymphatic endothelial cells are particularly dependent on VEGF-C, -D, and VEGFR3/Flt-4. The hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 is selectively expressed on endothelial cells of lymphatic compared to blood vessels.

Lymphatic Endothelial Cells - LYVE-1 Staining in Mouse Liver
LYVE-1 Staining in Mouse Liver

Cardiomyocytes

Cardiomyocytes provide cardiac muscle with its contractile power, and loss of cardiomyocyte function is a life threatening consequence of heart failure and myocardial infarction. Overcoming this loss is a major focus of cell therapy involving in vitro generated cardiomyocytes. 

iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes
iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes

Multianalyte Immunoassays

These assay platforms let you detect many proteins in one experiment. They cover secreted factors, shed soluble receptors, and intracellular molecules. These assays are optimized to detect analytes with high sensitivity, low background, and minimal cross-reactivity.

Atherosclerosis Cells

Vascular cells and infiltrating immune cells contribute directly to the development of atherosclerosis. This interactive tool covers vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, lymphoid and myeloid immune cells, and locally differentiated foam cells. It includes links for flow cytometry phenotyping markers as well as extended lists of secreted, cell surface, and intracellular markers.

Atherosclerosis Cells

Additional Resources

"Blood Brain Barrier Immune Cell Transmigration Pathway" 
This interactive pathway covers leukocyte adhesion and BBB crossing in response to neural cell inflammation.

"Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation Pathway" 
This interactive pathway covers MSC differentiation into multiple lineages including cardiac and smooth muscle.

"Notch Signaling Pathway" 
This interactive pathway includes non-canonical signaling, pre-processing, and NICD translocation.

"Platelet Adhesion Proteins and Ligands Pathway" 
This interactive pathway covers platelet adhesion receptors and their endothelial cell and ECM ligands.

"Platelet Adhesion Receptors and GPCRs Pathway" 
This interactive pathway covers cell surface receptors involved in platelet adhesion.

"VEGF-VEGFR2 Signaling Pathway" 
This interactive pathway covers intracellular signaling important for many vascular functions.

"Endothelial Cell Markers" 
This research area covers cell surface markers expressed on vascular endothelium.

"Atherosclerosis Disease Progression Poster" 
This poster covers healthy vascular function, endothelial damage, plaque progression, and plaque rupture.

"ProteinSimple® Analytical Instrumentation" 
Meet our protein characterization problem solvers – Simple Western, Maurice, Simple Plex, Single-Cell Western, MFISystems, and FluorChem Systems.

"RNAscope® and BaseScope™ Assays" 
Revolutionary ISH assays capture gene expression in situ at single cell level in intact tissue.

"Bioprocessing: From Start to Finish" 
Instruments, GMP reagents, and services for clone selection through final product characterization.

"Cell and Gene Therapy Solutions" 
Pioneering tools to simplify your workflow – cell separation, cell culture, and quality control.

"GMP Grade Proteins" 
Cytokines and growth factors for ancillary use in preclinical to clinical studies.