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Hypertension is a dangerous multi-factorial condition that is a dominant factor in diabetes, atherosclerosis, stroke, and kidney disease. It is worsened by vascular stiffness and dysregulated activity of the endocrine and sympathetic nervous systems.

Renin-Angiotensin System

The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is triggered by the cleavage of Angiotensinogen into multiple Angiotensin peptides by Renin, ACE/CD143, ACE-2, and other proteases. Angiotensin peptides regulate hemodynamics through wide ranging actions in the kidney, heart, vasculature, and sympathetic nervous system.

Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Pathway Diagram


The Endothelin-1 peptide is formed from Big Endothelin by the converting enzymes ECE-1 and ECE-2. It is an extremely potent vasoconstrictor, and it increases cardiac output and cardiomyocyte proliferation. ET-1 signals through type A and type B Endothelin receptors.

Renin-Angiotensin System, ECE-1 Staining in Human Kidney
ECE-1 Staining in Human Kidney

Vasoactive Peptides

In addition to Angiotensin and Endothelin, many vasoactive peptide hormones (e.g. natriuretic peptides, Bradykinin, Vasopressin) contribute to the central and peripheral regulation of blood pressure, vascular tone, and ion homeostasis.

Vasoactive Peptides Adrenomedullin Staining in Human Heart
Vasoactive Peptides Adrenomedullin Staining in Human Heart

Vascular Reactivity

Vascular reactivity is regulated by many classes of small molecules including eicosanoids (e.g. prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes), purines, 5-HT/serotonin, histamine, and nitric oxide, plus adrenergic and cholinergic ligands. These molecules induce rapid vasoconstriction or relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle.

Vascular Reactivity Diagram of Small Molecules

Kidney Cell markers

This interactive tool dissects the cell types that make up the renal corpuscle including Bowman’s capsule and the glomerular tuft. It organizes secreted, cell surface, and intracellular molecules for the glomerular and parietal endothelium, macula densa, mesangium, tubule epithelium, podocytes, and also the glomerular basement membrane. Find the reagents and assays you need for research into filtration barrier function, tubule-glomerular feedback, ion homeostasis, and blood pressure control.

Kidney Cell Markers Diagram

Additional Resources

"Atherosclerosis Disease Progression Poster" 
This poster covers healthy vascular function, endothelial damage, plaque progression, and plaque rupture.

"Vascular Reactivity Poster" 
This poster covers GPCRs and their signaling pathways that respond to vasoconstrictors and vasodilators.

"ProBNP Antigens and Antibodies" 
Antibodies and antigens from BiosPacific - for developing commercial cardiac assays.

"ProteinSimple® Analytical Instrumentation" 
Meet our protein characterization problem solvers – Simple Western, Maurice, Simple Plex, Single-Cell Western, MFISystems, and FluorChem Systems.

"RNAscope® and BaseScope™ Assays"
Revolutionary ISH assays capture gene expression in situ at single cell level in intact tissue.

"Bioprocessing: From Start to Finish"
Instruments, GMP reagents, and services for clone selection through final product characterization.

"Cell and Gene Therapy Solutions"
Pioneering tools to simplify your workflow – cell separation, cell culture, and quality control.

"GMP Grade Proteins" 
Cytokines and growth factors for ancillary use in preclinical to clinical studies.