>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
N-terminal sequence Analysis
Predicted Molecular Mass
140-160 kDa, under reducing conditions.
Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA with Recombinant Human ACE-2 His-tag (Catalog # 933-ZN).
Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.324.1 Spike (GCN4-IZ) Protein, CF Scientific Data Examples
Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.324.1 Spike (GCN4-IZ) His-tag Protein Binding Activity.
Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.324.1 Spike (GCN4-IZ) His-tag (Catalog # 10873-CV) binds Recombinant Human ACE-2 His-tag (933-ZN) in a functional ELISA.
Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.324.1 Spike (GCN4-IZ) His-tag Protein SDS-PAGE.
2 μg/lane of Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.324.1 Spike (GCN4-IZ) His-tag Protein (Catalog # 10873-CV) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 140-160 kDa.
Binding of ACE-2 to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein mutant B.1.324.1 variant E484K by surface plasmon resonance (SPR).
Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein B.1.324.1 variant E484K His-tag (Catalog #10873-CV) was immobilized on a Biacore Sensor Chip CM5, and binding to recombinant human ACE-2 (933-ZN) was measured at a concentration range between 0.046 nM and 47.2 nM. The double-referenced sensorgram was fit to a 1:1 binding model to determine the binding kinetics and affinity, with an affinity constant of KD=0.603 nM. (Biacore T200).
Formulation, Preparation and Storage
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our
Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant
protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration.
The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or
as an ELISA standard.
In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.
Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage:
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
SARS-CoV-2, which causes the global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), belongs to a family of viruses known as coronaviruses that also include MERS‑CoV and SARS-CoV-1. Coronaviruses are commonly comprised of four structural proteins: Spike protein (S), Envelope protein (E), Membrane protein (M) and Nucleocapsid protein (N) (1). The SARS-CoV-2 S protein is a glycoprotein that mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. The S protein is homotrimeric, with each ~180-kDa monomer consisting of two subunits, S1 and S2 (2). In SARS-CoV-2, as with most coronaviruses, proteolytic cleavage of the S protein into S1 and S2 subunits is required for activation. The S1 subunit is focused on attachment of the protein to the host receptor while the S2 subunit is involved with cell fusion (3-5). A receptor binding domain (RBD) in the C-terminus of the S1 subunit has been identified and the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 shares 73% amino acid (aa) identity with the RBD of the SARS-CoV-1, but only 22% aa identity with the RBD of MERS‑CoV (6,7). The low aa sequence homology is consistent with the finding that SARS and MERS‑CoV bind different cellular receptors (8). The RBD of SARS-CoV-2 binds a metallopeptidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), similar to SARS-CoV-1, but with much higher affinity and faster binding kinetics (9). Before binding to the ACE-2 receptor, structural analysis of the S1 trimer shows that only one of the three RBD domains is in the "up" conformation. This is an unstable and transient state that passes between trimeric subunits but is nevertheless an exposed state to be targeted for neutralizing antibody therapy (10). Polyclonal antibodies to the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 protein have been shown to inhibit interaction with the ACE2 receptor, confirming RBD as an attractive target for vaccinations or antiviral therapy (11). There is also promising work showing that the RBD may be used to detect presence of neutralizing antibodies present in a patient's bloodstream, consistent with developed immunity after exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 (12). Several emerging SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been identified with mutations in the RBD compared to the Wuhan-Hu-1 SARS-CoV-2 reference sequence. The B 1.324.1 variant was identified as a Variant of Concern (VOC) as it contains several mutations of interest in the RBD domain that effect viral fitness and transmissibility: E484K, S494P, and N501Y (13). Structural analysis points to E484K as a potentially crucial mutation as it creates a new site for hACE-2 binding and may enhance binding affinity (14). S494P is also located within the ACE2 receptor binding domain and experimental evidence suggests that mutations at this position decrease antibody binding affinity (15). N501Y is thought to enhance binding affinity for hACE-2 and make the virus more easily transmissible (16, 17). Additionally, the E484K substitution alone has been shown to confer resistance to several monoclonal antibodies and is responsible for the first confirmed SARS-CoV-2 reinfection (18).
Wu, F. et al. (2020) Nature 579:265.
Tortorici, M.A. and D. Veesler (2019) Adv. Virus Res. 105:93.
Bosch, B.J. et al. (2003) J. Virol. 77:8801.
Belouzard, S. et al. (2009) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106:5871.
Millet, J.K. and G.R. Whittaker (2015) Virus Res. 202:120.
Which Brands are Currently Available on bio‑techne.com? R&D Systems, Tocris Bioscience and ProteinSimple branded products are available to purchase through bio‑techne.com. ProteinSimple branded instruments are available to quote. ACD branded products will be available on bio‑techne.com in the near future. Novus Biologicals branded products are not currently available on bio‑techne.com and can be found at novusbio.com.
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