INTENDED USE & DESCRIPTION
For use as quantitative controls for the determination of cytokine concentrations in biological fluids. Concentrations have been assigned using R&D Systems’ Quantikine® kits. Controls are prepared in a buffered protein solution with preservatives. They contain recombinant human cytokines at low, medium and high concentrations. Controls are supplied lyophilized.
STORAGE & STABILITY
Unreconstituted Controls should be stored at 2-8 °C and are stable for at least 6 months from date of receipt. Depending on the analyte of interest, reconstituted controls may be stable when stored at
Reconstitute each vial with the volume of deionized or distilled water indicated on the product datasheet.
PROCEDURE & EXPECTED VALUES
Controls should be assayed in the same manner as unknown specimens.
The acceptable ranges for the analytes in these controls are printed on the product datasheet. Due to possible variations in techniques and methodologies, it is recommended that each laboratory determine its own target range. Laboratories using other test systems should establish their own acceptable ranges as these assays may produce different values.
TECHNICAL HINTS & LIMITATIONS OF THE PROCEDURE
• The ranges were determined using R&D Systems’ Quantikine kits. If expected values are not obtained, verify that the lot numbers on the vials correspond with the lot numbers listed above and the correct volume of deionized or distilled water was used for reconstitution of the controls.
• The results obtained with these controls depend upon several factors associated with methods and instrumentation. Test systems other than those supplied by R&D Systems may result in values that differ from those printed on this product datasheet.
CX3CL1/Fractalkine is a transmembrane adhesion protein with a chemokine domain separated from the membrane by a mucin stalk. It is upregulated on many cell types during inflammation. The chemokine and mucin regions can be shed as a soluble chemokine that signals through the receptor CX3CR1. During extravasation, membrane-bound CX3CL1 traps leukocytes, then is cleaved to allow diapedesis. Soluble CX3CL1 protects neurons from microglial neurotoxicity, recruits macrophages for wound healing, recruits osteoclast precursors for bone resorption, and contributes to pathogenesis in coronary artery disease.