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Recombinant Mouse CX3CL1/Fractalkine (aa 29-102) Protein, CF

Bio-Techne includes R&D Systems | Catalog # 3215-MF

N-truncated
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3215-MF-050

Key Product Details

Source

E. coli

Accession #

Conjugate

Unconjugated

Applications

Bioactivity

Product Specifications

Source

E. coli-derived mouse CX3CL1/Fractalkine protein
Met29-Lys102

Purity

>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.

Endotoxin Level

<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

N-terminal Sequence Analysis

Met29

Predicted Molecular Mass

8.4 kDa

Activity

Measured by its ability to antagonize Recombinant Mouse CX3CL1/Fractalkine aa 25-105 (Catalog # 571-MF) induced chemotaxis of BaF3 mouse pro‑B cells transfected with mouse CX3CR1. Inoue, A. et al. (2005) Arthritis Rheum. 52:1522.
The ED50 for this effect is 0.25-1.5 µg/mL in the presence of 50 ng/mL of Recombinant Mouse CX3CL1/Fractalkine aa 25-105 (Catalog # 571-MF).
Optimal concentration depends on cell type as well as the application or research objective.

Formulation, Preparation and Storage

3215-MF
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: CX3CL1/Fractalkine

Fractalkine, designated CX3CL1 and also known as neurotactin, is the only member of the CX3C, or delta, chemokine subfamily (1-4). Unlike most other chemokines, CX3CL1 is a type I transmembrane (TM) adhesion protein (1). The mouse CX3CL1 cDNA encodes 395 amino acids (aa), including a signal sequence (aa 1-24), a chemokine domain (aa 25-100), a mucin stalk region (aa 101-336), a transmembrane segment (aa 337-357), and a cytoplasmic tail (aa 358-395). The chemokine domain contains binding and chemotactic determinants, while the mucin stalk appears to function only as a spacer (4, 5). Mouse CX3CL1 shares 85% and 78% aa sequence identity with rat and human CX3CL1, respectively, within the chemokine domain, but lower sequence identity within other domains. CX3CL1 is up‑regulated by pro-inflammatory stimuli, especially IFN‑ gamma and TNF‑ alpha, on cell types including macrophages, dendritic cells, endothelium, neurons, smooth muscle and epithelium lining the intestines and other tubules (1, 8, 9). The 40 kDa, 7‑TM non‑glycosylated G‑protein coupled CX3CL1 receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by cytotoxic effector cells and cytokine producers, including type I helper and cytotoxic T cells, gamma delta T cells, CD16+ NK cells, monocytes and microglia (1, 2). The 95-100 kDa TM CX3CL1 can be inducibly cleaved near the TM segment by ADAM10 or ADAM17 to generate a 60-80 kDa soluble form (6, 7). TM CX3CL1 functions as an adhesion molecule, while both forms are chemoattractants for target cells expressing CX3CR1 (1, 2). During extravasation, membrane‑bound CX3CL1 traps leukocytes, then is cleaved to allow diapedesis (6). In coronary artery disease, soluble CX3CL1 and CD8+ T cell CX3CR1 are overexpressed and appear to contribute to pathogenesis (1, 10). In the brain, CX3CL1/CX3CR1 interaction protects against microglial neurotoxicity (11). CX3CL1 also contributes to wound healing by recruiting macrophages, and to bone resorption by recruiting and mediating adhesion of osteoclast precursors (12, 13).

References

  1. Stievano, L. et al. (2004) Crit. Rev. Immunol. 24:205.
  2. Umehara, H. et al. (2004) Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 24:34.
  3. Rossi, D.L. et al. (1998) Genomics 47:163.
  4. Mizoue, L.S. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:33906.
  5. Harrison, J.K. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:21632.
  6. Hundhausen, C. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:8064.        
  7. Tsou, C. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:44622.
  8. Tarozzo, G. et al. (2003) J. Neurosci. Res. 73:81.
  9. Lucas, A.D. et al. (2001) Am. J. Pathol. 158:855.
  10. Damas, J.K. et al. (2005) Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 25:2567.
  11. Cardona, A.E. et al. (2006) Nat. Neurosci. 9:917.
  12. Koizumi, K. et al. (2009) J. Immunol. 183:7825.
  13. Ishida, Y. et al. (2008) J. Immunol. 180:569.

Alternate Names

FKN, Fractalkine, Neurotactin

Entrez Gene IDs

6376 (Human); 20312 (Mouse); 89808 (Rat); 102117496 (Cynomolgus Monkey)

Gene Symbol

CX3CL1

UniProt

Additional CX3CL1/Fractalkine Products

Product Documents for Recombinant Mouse CX3CL1/Fractalkine (aa 29-102) Protein, CF

Certificate of Analysis

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Note: Certificate of Analysis not available for kit components.

Product Specific Notices for Recombinant Mouse CX3CL1/Fractalkine (aa 29-102) Protein, CF

For research use only

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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