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Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A GMP Protein, CF GMP Best Seller

Catalog # 338-GMP | R&D Systems, Inc. a Bio-Techne Brand
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338-GMP-010
338-GMP-01M
338-GMP-050

Key Product Details

Source

CHO

Accession #

Structure / Form

Disulfide-linked homodimer

Conjugate

Unconjugated

Applications

Bioactivity

Product Specifications

Source

Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived Activin A protein
Gly311-Ser426
Manufactured and tested under cGMP guidelines.

Purity

>97%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.

Endotoxin Level

<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

N-terminal Sequence Analysis

Gly311-Leu-Glu-(Cys)-Asp-Gly-Lys-Val-Asn-Ile

Predicted Molecular Mass

13 kDa (monomer)

SDS-PAGE

14 kDa, reducing conditions
24 kDa, non-reducing conditions

Activity

Measured by its ability to induce hemoglobin expression in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Schwall, R.H. et al. (1991) Method Enzymol. 198:340.
The ED50 for this effect is 0.2-1.2 ng/mL.
The specific activity of Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A is >1000 units/mg, which is calibrated against the human Activin A WHO reference standard (NIBSC code: 91/626).

Host Cell Protein

< 0.5 ng per µg of protein when tested by ELISA.

Mycoplasma

Negative when tested in a ribosomal RNA hybridization assay.

Scientific Data Images for Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A GMP Protein, CF

Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A GMP Protein Bioactivity

Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A GMP Protein Bioactivity

GMP-grade Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338‑GMP) induces hemoglobin expression in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2‑1.2 ng/mL.
Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A GMP Protein SDS-PAGE

Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A GMP Protein SDS-PAGE

1 μg/lane of GMP-grade Recombinant Human/ Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338‑GMP) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 14 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively.

Formulation, Preparation and Storage

338-GMP
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA. 
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100-500 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • A minimum of 12 months when stored at ≤ -20 °C as supplied. Refer to lot specific COA for the Use by Date.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, ≤ -20 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: Activin A

Activin and Inhibin are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines and are involved in a wide range of biological processes including tissue morphogenesis and repair, fibrosis, inflammation, neural development, hematopoiesis, reproductive system function, and carcinogenesis (1‑7). Activin and Inhibin are produced as precursor proteins. Their amino terminal propeptides are proteolytically cleaved and facilitate formation of disulfide-linked dimers of the bioactive proteins (8, 9). Activins are nonglycosylated homodimers or heterodimers of various beta subunits ( betaA, betaB, betaC, and betaE in mammals), while Inhibins are heterodimers of a unique alpha subunit and one of the beta subunits. Activin A is a widely expressed homodimer of two betaA chains. The betaA subunit can also heterodimerize with a betaB or betaC subunit to form Activin AB and Activin AC, respectively (10). The 14 kDa mature human betaA chain shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat betaA. 

Activin A exerts its biological activities by binding to the type 2 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIIA which then noncovalently associates with the type 1 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIB/ALK-4 (7, 11). Signaling through this receptor complex leads to Smad activation and regulation of activin-responsive gene transcription (7, 11). The bioactivity of Activin A is regulated by a variety of mechanisms (11). BAMBI, Betaglycan, and Cripto are cell‑associated molecules that function as decoy receptors or limit the ability of Activin A to induce receptor complex assembly (12‑14). The intracellular formation of Activin A can be prevented by the incorporation of the betaA subunit into Activin AC or Inhibin A (3, 10). And the bioavailability of Activin A is restricted by its incorporation into inactive complexes with alpha2-Macroglobulin, Follistatin, and FLRG (15, 16).

Activin A is involved in the differentiation of various cell and tissue types. The induction of definitive endoderm by Activin A is required in differentiation protocols of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (17, 18). In vitro models of human gametogenesis use prolonged Activin A supplementation to human embryonic stem cells for differentiation into human primordial germ cell-like cells (19). Activin A can also be used to maintain cells in vitro, as is the case for iPSC-derived nephron cells that can then be used in disease modeling, drug screening and in regenerative medicine (20). 

Activin A is an important factor for tumor cells to evade the immune system as Activin A can act on surrounding immune cells to decrease their antitumor activity (21). Activin A also promotes migration and growth of tumors, making it a target for cancer therapies (22). Specifically, research has shown that interfering with Activin A activity can assist in overcoming CD8 T-cell exclusion and immunotherapy resistance (23). In bone marrow-derived stem cell transplants for treatment of diabetes, Activin A enhances migration and homing of stem cells towards pancreatic lineage (24).

References

  1. Kumanov, P. et al. (2005) Reprod. Biomed. Online 10:786.
  2. Maeshima, A. et al. (2008) Endocr. J. 55:1.
  3. Rodgarkia-Dara, C. et al. (2006) Mutat. Res. 613:123.
  4. Werner, S. and C. Alzheimer (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:157.
  5. Xu, P. and A.K. Hall (2006) Dev. Biol. 299:303.
  6. Shav-Tal, Y. and D. Zipori (2002) Stem Cells 20:493.
  7. Chen, Y.G. et al. (2006) Exp. Biol. Med. 231:534.
  8. Gray, A.M. and A.J. Mason (1990) Science 247:1328.
  9. Mason, A.J. et al. (1996) Mol. Endocrinol. 10:1055.
  10. Thompson, T.B. et al. (2004) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225:9.
  11. Harrison, C.A. et al. (2005) Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 16:73.
  12. Onichtchouk, D. et al. (1999) Nature 401:480.
  13. Gray, P.C. et al. (2002) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188:254.
  14. Kelber, J.A. et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283:4490.
  15. Phillips, D.J. et al. (1997) J. Endocrinol. 155:65.
  16. Schneyer, A. et al. (2003) Endocrinology 144:1671.
  17. Ghorbani-Dalini, S. et al. (2020) 3 Biotech. 10:215.
  18. Mennen, R. H. et al. (2022) Reprod Toxicol. 107:44.
  19. Mishra, S. et al. (2021) Stem Cells. 39:551.
  20. Tanigawa, S. et al. (2019) Stem Cell Reports 13:322.
  21. Cangkrama, M. et al. (2020) Trends Mol. Med. 26:1107.
  22. Ries, A. et al. (2020) Expert Opin. Ther. Targets. 24:985.
  23. Pinjusic, K. et al. (2022) J. Immunother. Cancer. 10:e004533.
  24. Dadheech, N. et al. (2020) Stem Cell Res. Ther. 11:327.

Alternate Names

activin AB alpha polypeptide, Activin beta-A chain, erythroid differentiation factor, Erythroid differentiation protein, follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing protein, FSH-releasing protein, inhibin beta A chain, inhibin beta A subunit, Inhibin, beta-1

Entrez Gene IDs

3624 (Human); 16323 (Mouse); 29200 (Rat)

Gene Symbol

INHBA

UniProt

Additional Activin A Products

Product Documents for Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A GMP Protein, CF

Certificate of Analysis

To download a Certificate of Analysis, please enter a lot number in the search box below.

Note: Certificate of Analysis not available for kit components.

Manufacturing Specifications

GMP Proteins
R&D Systems, a Bio-Techne Brand's GMP proteins are produced according to relevant sections of the following documents: USP Chapter 1043, Ancillary Materials for Cell, Gene and Tissue-Engineered Products and Eu. Ph. 5.2.12, Raw Materials of Biological Origin for the Production of Cell-based and Gene Therapy Medicinal Products.


R&D Systems' quality focus includes:

  • Manufactured and tested under an ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 13485:2016 certified quality system
  • Documented processes and QA control of documentation and process changes
  • Personnel training programs
  • Raw material testing and vendor qualification/monitoring
  • Fully validated equipment, processes and test methods
  • Equipment calibration schedules using a computerized calibration program
  • Facility maintenance, safety programs and pest control
  • Material review process for variances
  • Monitoring of stability over product shelf-life


R&D Systems strives to provide our customers with the analytical characteristics of each product so that customers may determine whether our products are appropriate for their research. The Certificate of Analysis provided contains the following lot specific information:

  • N-terminal amino acid analysis, SDS-PAGE analysis, and endotoxin level (as determined by LAL assay) performed on each bulk QC lot, not on individual bottlings of each QC lot
  • Post-bottling lot-specific bioassay results (compliance with an established range) and results of microbial testing according to USP
  • Host Cell Protein testing performed by ELISA
  • Mycoplasma testing by ribosomal RNA hybridization assay


Additional testing and documentation requested by the customer can be arranged at an additional cost. 

Production records and facilities are available for examination by appropriate personnel on-site at R&D Systems in Minneapolis, Minnesota USA.

R&D Systems sells GMP grade products for preclinical or clinical ex vivo use. They are not for in vivo use. Please read the following End User Terms prior to using this product.

Product Specific Notices for Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A GMP Protein, CF

END USER TERMS OF USE OF PRODUCT

The following terms are offered to you upon your acceptance of these End User Terms of Use of Product. By using this product, you indicate your acknowledgment and agreement to these End User Terms of Use of Product. If you do not agree to be bound by and comply with all of the provisions of these End User Terms of Use of Product, you should contact your supplier of the product and make arrangements to return the product.

We suggest you print and retain a copy of these End User Terms of Use of Product for your records.

The End User is aware that R&D Systems, Inc. sells GMP products for preclinical or clinical ex vivo use and not for in vivo use. The End User further agrees, as a condition of the sale of R&D Systems' GMP products that: a) the End User will not use this GMP Product in any procedure wherein the product may be directly or indirectly administered to humans, unless the End User has obtained, or prior to their use will have obtained, an Investigational New Drug (IND) exemption from the FDA and will use the product only in accordance with the protocols of such IND and of the Institutional Review Board overseeing the proposed research, or b) the End User will use the products outside of the United States in accordance with the protocols of research approved by the Institutional Review Board or authorized ethics committee and regulatory agencies to which the End User is subject to in their territory.

R&D Systems, Inc. has the right, at its sole discretion, to modify, add or remove any terms or conditions of these End User Terms of Use without notice or liability to you. Any changes to these End User Terms of Use are effective immediately following the printing of such changes on this product insert. The most recent version of these End User Terms of Use of Product may be found at: RnDSystems.com/Legal.

You agree to review these End User Terms of Use of Product to ensure any subsequent use by you of R&D Systems' GMP Products following changes to these End User Terms of Use of Product constitutes your acceptance of all such changes.

 

TERMS AND CONDITIONS

The following limitation applies to R&D Systems' warranty and liability for damages: All products are warranted to meet R&D Systems' published specifications when used under normal laboratory conditions.

R&D SYSTEMS DOES NOT MAKE ANY OTHER WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO ITS PRODUCTS. IN PARTICULAR, R&D SYSTEMS DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OF SUITABILITY, NONINFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER PROVISIONS OF THESE TERMS AND/OR ANY OTHER AGREEMENT BETWEEN R&D SYSTEMS AND PURCHASER FOR THE PURCHASE OF THE PRODUCTS, R&D SYSTEMS' TOTAL LIABILITY TO PURCHASER ARISING FROM OR IN RELATION TO THESE TERMS, AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE PARTIES OR THE PRODUCTS, WHETHER ARISING IN CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE TOTAL AMOUNT PAID BY PURCHASER TO R&D SYSTEMS FOR THE APPLICABLE PRODUCTS. IN NO EVENT WILL R&D SYSTEMS BE LIABLE FOR THE COST OF PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS.

Full details of R&D Systems' Terms and Conditions of Sale can be found online at: RnDSystems.com/Legal.

For preclinical, or clinical ex vivo use

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