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Immune checkpoint molecules play a central role in regulating the activities of different immune cell types. These molecules have either stimulatory functions that promote immune cell activation to protect the host from invading pathogens and developing malignancies, or inhibitory functions that suppress immune cell activation to dampen inflammation, maintain immune homeostasis, and prevent tissue damage. Tumor cells frequently exploit immune checkpoint pathways by up-regulating the expression of ligands that activate inhibitory receptors on different immune cell types, allowing them to evade destruction by the host’s immune system. As a result, researchers have focused on targeting immune checkpoint molecules for cancer immunotherapy using either agonists of immune cell stimulatory receptors or antagonists of inhibitory receptors. While remarkable success has been achieved by targeting the T cell co-inhibitory receptors, CTLA-4 and PD-1, clinicians have also found that monoclonal antibodies directed against CTLA-4, PD-1, or the PD-1 ligand, PD-L1, are only effective in a minority of cancer patients, and some patients that initially respond to treatment with these antibodies, can become resistant or relapse due to an up-regulation of other immune checkpoint pathways. Therefore, additional immune checkpoint regulators that may serve as immunotherapeutic targets, either alone or in combination, are being sought. This eBook details some of the current and emerging immune checkpoint molecules that are being investigated as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy and the products that we offer for studying these molecules.

It includes information about:

  • Different B7 family proteins and their effects on immune cell activation
  • Members of the butyrophilin family of T cell co-stimulatory/co-inhibitory molecules
  • The CD47-SIRP alpha myeloid cell-specific immune checkpoint pathway and how tumor cells can exploit this pathway to evade phagocytic destruction
  • The effects of IDO/TDO and the kynurenine pathway on immune cell functions
  • Different LAG-3 and TIM-3 ligands and how these ligand-receptor interactions can negatively regulate anti-tumor immune responses
  • The immunosuppressive effects of the LILRB family
  • The potential of CD96, PVRIG, TIGIT, and other VSTM and VSIG family proteins as next generation immuno-oncology targets
  • Co-stimulatory members of the TNF receptor superfamily and their immunotherapeutic potential

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