Cells of the Cardiovascular System

Blood and lymphatic vessels are populated by endothelial and smooth muscle cells arranged in concentric layers separated by fibrous sheaths. The heart’s muscular wall is comprised of cardiomyocytes lined with endothelial cells.

Vascular endothelial cells form a monolayer that lines blood and lymphatic vessels. They mediate the uptake of circulating nutrients and hormones and the attachment of leukocytes during inflammation. The vascular endothelium is heterogeneous between tissues which allows for functional specialization. During angiogenesis, endothelial cells proliferate and acquire the characteristics of tip and stalk cells along the vessel sprout. Endothelial damage leads to barrier dysfunction and inflammation in atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer.

Multianalyte Immunoassays

These assay platforms let you detect many proteins in one experiment. They cover secreted factors, shed soluble receptors, and intracellular molecules. These assays are optimized to detect analytes with high sensitivity, low background, and minimal cross-reactivity.

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Endothelial Cells
VE-Cadherin Staining in HUVEC Cells

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of the tunica media form a contractile support enclosing the vascular endothelium. They provide mechanical strength and elasticity, regulate vascular tone and resistance, and anchor vessels to the extracellular matrix. Osteoblastic VSMC differentiation leads to vessel wall calcification and stiffness which contribute to disease progression in hypertension and atherosclerosis. Mural cells reside in the microvasculature where they provide endothelial support and contractile function. They are phenotypically heterogeneous, with characteristics of both VSMC and fibroblast-like pericytes.

Multianalyte Immunoassays

These assay platforms let you detect many proteins in one experiment. They cover secreted factors, shed soluble receptors, and intracellular molecules. These assays are optimized to detect analytes with high sensitivity, low background, and minimal cross-reactivity.

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Vascular Smooth Muscle
Alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin Staining in Mouse Aortic Sinus

Lymphatic endothelial cells are particularly dependent on VEGF-C, -D, and VEGFR3/Flt-4. The hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 is selectively expressed on endothelial cells of lymphatic compared to blood vessels.

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Lymphatics
LYVE-1 Staining in Mouse Liver

Cardiomyocytes provide cardiac muscle with its contractile power, and loss of cardiomyocyte function is a life threatening consequence of heart failure and myocardial infarction. Overcoming this loss is a major focus of cell therapy involving in vitro generated cardiomyocytes.

Multianalyte Immunoassays

These assay platforms let you detect many proteins in one experiment. They cover secreted factors, shed soluble receptors, and intracellular molecules. These assays are optimized to detect analytes with high sensitivity, low background, and minimal cross-reactivity.

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Cardiomyocytes
iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes
Vascular cells and infiltrating immune cells contribute directly to the development of atherosclerosis. This interactive tool covers vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, lymphoid and myeloid immune cells, and locally differentiated foam cells. It includes links for flow cytometry phenotyping markers as well as extended lists of secreted, cell surface, and intracellular markers.

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Atherosclerosis Cells