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Recombinant BatCoV RaTG13 Spike S1 (GCN4-IZ) His Protein, CF

Catalog # 10661-CV | R&D Systems, Inc. a Bio-Techne Brand
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10661-CV-100

Key Product Details

Source

HEK293

Accession #

Conjugate

Unconjugated

Applications

Bioactivity

Product Specifications

Source

Human embryonic kidney cell, HEK293-derived batcov ratg13 Spike S1 Subunit protein
BatCoV RaTG13 Spike S1 Subunit
(Val16-Ser680)
Accession # QHR63300.2
GCN4-IZ  HHHHHH
N-terminus C-terminus

Purity

>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.

Endotoxin Level

<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

N-terminal Sequence Analysis

Val 16

Predicted Molecular Mass

80 kDa

SDS-PAGE

105-120 kDa, under reducing conditions

Activity

Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA with Recombinant Human ACE-2 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 10544-ZN).

Scientific Data Images for Recombinant BatCoV RaTG13 Spike S1 (GCN4-IZ) His Protein, CF

Recombinant BatCoV RaTG13 Spike S1 Subunit (GCN4-IZ) His-tag Protein Binding Activity.

Recombinant BatCoV RaTG13 Spike S1 Subunit (GCN4-IZ) His-tag (Catalog # 10661-CV) binds Recombinant Human ACE-2 Fc Chimera (10544-ZN) in a functional ELISA.

Recombinant BatCoV RaTG13 Spike S1 (GCN4-IZ) His-tag Protein SDS-PAGE.

2 μg/lane of Recombinant BatCoV RaTG13 Spike S1 (GCN4-IZ) His-tag (Catalog # 10661-CV) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing a band at 105-120 kDa.

Formulation, Preparation and Storage

10661-CV
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: Spike S1 Subunit

SARS-CoV-2, which causes the global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), belongs to a family of viruses known as coronaviruses that are commonly comprised of four structural proteins: Spike protein(S), Envelope protein (E), Membrane protein (M), and Nucleocapsid protein (N) (1). SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein (S Protein) is a glycoprotein that mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. The S protein is homotrimeric, with each ~180-kDa monomer consisting of two subunits, S1 and S2 (2). In SARS-Cov-2, as with most coronaviruses, proteolytic cleavage of the S protein into two distinct peptides, S1 and S2 subunits, is required for activation. The S1 subunit is focused on attachment of the protein to the host receptor while the S2 subunit is involved with cell fusion (3-5). Based on structural biology studies, the receptor binding domain (RBD), located in the C-terminal region of S1, can be oriented either in the up/standing or down/lying state (6). The standing state is associated with higher pathogenicity and both SARS-CoV-1 and MERS can access this state due to the flexibility in their respective RBDs. A similar two-state structure and flexibility is found in the SARS-Cov-2 RBD (7). SARS-Cov 2 is likely originated from Bat coronavirus RaTG13. Based on amino acid (aa) sequence homology, the S1 subunit of RaTG13 shares 66% and 96% homology with S1 subunit of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2, respectively. Despite high homology to SARS-COV2, five of the six key amino acids involved in ACE2 binding are different in RaTG13, leading to >1000 fold weaker binding to human ACE2 (8, 9). Before binding to the ACE2 receptor, structural analysis of the S1 trimer shows that only one of the three RBD domains in the trimeric structure is in the "up" conformation. This is an unstable and transient state that passes between trimeric subunits but is nevertheless an exposed state to be targeted for neutralizing antibody therapy (10). Polyclonal antibodies to the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 protein have been shown to inhibit interaction with the ACE2 receptor, confirming RBD as an attractive target for vaccinations or antiviral therapy (11). There is also promising work showing that the RBD may be used to detect presence of neutralizing antibodies present in a patient's bloodstream, consistent with developed immunity after exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus (12). Lastly, it has been demonstrated the S Protein can invade host cells through the CD147/EMMPRIN receptor and mediate membrane fusion (13, 14).

References

  1. Wu, F. et al. (2020) Nature 579:265.
  2. Tortorici, M.A. and D. Veesler (2019) Adv. Virus Res. 105:93.
  3. Bosch, B.J. et al. (2003). J. Virol. 77:8801.
  4. Belouzard, S. et al. (2009) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106:5871.
  5. Millet, J.K. and G. R. Whittaker (2015) Virus Res. 202:120.
  6. Yuan, Y. et al. (2017) Nat. Commun. 8:15092.
  7. Walls, A.C. et al. (2010) Cell 180:281.
  8. Malayia, J. et al. (2020) J Med. Virol. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26261.
  9. Wrobel, A.G. et al. (2020) Nat. struct. Mol. Biol. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41594-020-0468-7.
  10. Ortega, J.T. et al. (2020) EXCLI J. 19:410.
  11. Wrapp, D. et al. (2020) Science 367:1260.
  12. Tai, W. et al. (2020) Cell. Mol. Immunol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2020.03.007.
  13. Okba, N. M. A. et al. (2020). Emerg. Infect. Dis. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.200841.
  14. Wang, X. et al. (2020) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0424-9.
  15. Wang, K. et al. (2020) bioRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.14.988345.

Long Name

Spike Protein, S1 Subunit

UniProt

Product Documents for Recombinant BatCoV RaTG13 Spike S1 (GCN4-IZ) His Protein, CF

Certificate of Analysis

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Note: Certificate of Analysis not available for kit components.

Product Specific Notices for Recombinant BatCoV RaTG13 Spike S1 (GCN4-IZ) His Protein, CF

For research use only

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