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Articles

A collection of articles and mini-reviews that focus on an array of scientific topics. For more articles please visit rndsystems.com.

 Detection of IL-4-induced STAT6 Phosphorylation by Intracellular Flow Cytometry

Methods of Detecting Protein Phosphorylation

When assessing phosphorylation, the method of choice may vary depending on many factors including the specific question being asked and availability of specialized equipment or reagents. This review provides a brief description of several methodologies currently used and addresses some of the benefits and drawbacks associated with each.

ERK Signaling is Compartmentalized Within the Cell

The ERK Signal Transduction Pathway

Growth factors, through receptor tyrosine kinases, recruit a large network of signaling proteins to execute their cellular programs. These examples in this review highlight the continuing need for new drugs and targets and inhibition of the ERK pathway remains promising for cancer therapies.

Directed Differentiation of iPS Cells

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

This review goes over the examples of iPS cells differentiating into various somatic cell types pave the way for generating patient-specific pluripotent cells that could be used for research and therapy. Disease research, drug development, and patient therapy will be greatly enhanced by the ability to recapitulate normal and pathologic tissue differentiation and formation in vitro, which iPS cells provide more readily than ES cells.

Four caspase pathways involved in apoptosis

Apoptosis: Caspase Pathways

A group of intracellular proteases called caspases are responsible for the deliberate disassembly of the cell into apoptotic bodies during apoptosis.

Macrophage Activation Schematic

Macrophage Activation

Traditionally, macrophages have been described as antigen-presenting phagocytes that secrete pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators. Mounting evidence, however, describes a more complex model involving multiple macrophage phenotypes carrying out differential functions and eliciting divergent effects on surrounding cells and tissues.