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Adipokines Regulate Insulin Sensitivity, Metabolic Processes, and Inflammation

Adipokines Regulate Metabolic Processes, Inflammation, and Angiogenesis

Adipocytes secrete adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, leptin, and resistin, which have pro- and anti-inflammatory effects.

Adipokines Secreted by the Adipose Tissue Play a Central Role in Regulating Multiple Metabolic Processes, Inflammation, and Angiogenesis.  Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes peptide hormones collectively known as adipokines. These factors play a key role in regulating biological processes such as adipocyte differentiation, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, immune responses, and angiogenesis. As a result, changes in the circulating levels of adipokines can have deleterious effects and are thought to contribute to the development of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

Bioactivity Testing of R&D Systems Recombinant Human Leptin

Analysis of the effect of Recombinant Human Leptin on proliferation of a pro-B cell line transfected with human Leptin R.

Leptin Stimulates Proliferation of the BaF3 Mouse Pro-B Cell Line. Baf3 mouse pro-B cells transfected with human Leptin R were treated with increasing concentrations of Recombinant Human Leptin (R&D Systems, Catalog # 398-LP) and cell proliferation was assessed. The ED50 for this effect is 0.4-2 ng/mL.

Assessment of the Bioactivity of R&D Systems Recombinant Human PBEf/Visfatin

Analysis of the effect of R&D Systems Recombinant Human PBEF/Visfatin on VEGF secretion by human prostate cancer cells.

PBEF/Visfatin Induces VEGF Secretion by Human Prostate Cancer Cells. PC-3 human prostate cancer cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Recombinant Human PBEF/Visfatin (R&D Systems, Catalog # 8424-VF) and VEGF secretion was measured using the Human VEGF Quantikine™ ELISA Kit (R&D Systems, Catalog # DVE00). The ED50 for this effect is 1-5 ug/mL.

Quantification of IL-6 Secretion in Untreated and Treated Primary Human Adipocytes

Quantification of IL-6 secretion by primary human adipocytes treated with TNF-alpha alone or Sfrp5 and TNF-alpha.

Quantification of IL-6 Secretion by Primary Human Adipocytes Following Treatment with TNF-alpha or sFRP-5 and TNF-alpha. Primary human adipocytes were either untreated (basal), treated with TNF-alpha alone, or treated with sFRP-5 (R&D Systems, Catalog # 6266-SF; 100 ng/mL; 4h) prior to incubation with TNF-alpha (5 nmol/L). IL-6 secretion was quantified using the Human IL-6 Quantikine ELISA Kit (R&D Systems, Catalog # D6050). Figure from Carstensen, M. et al. (2014) PLoS ONE 9:e85906.

Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Adipokines Using the Proteome ProfilerTM Mouse Adipokine Array Kit

Adipokine detection in cell culture supernates from undifferentiated and differentiated mouse embryonic fibroblast cells

Detection of Adipokines in Cell Culture Supernatants from Undifferentiated and Differentiated Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Cells Using the Proteome Profiler Mouse Adipokine Array. 3T3-L1 mouse embryonic fibroblast adipose-like cells were either undifferentiated or differentiated with methylisobutylxanthine (115 ug/mL), insulin (10 ug/mL), and dexamethasone (390 ng/mL) for 48 hours followed by the addition of insulin (10 ug/mL) for the next 48 hours. The cells were then grown in standard media for an additional 96 hours. Cell culture supernatants were removed and assayed using the Proteome Profiler Mouse Adipokine Array Kit (R&D Systems, Catalog # ARY013). Histogram profiles for select proteins detected in the cell culture supernatants of undifferentiated (gray bars) and differentiated (blue bars) cells were generated by quantifying the mean spot pixel densities from the arrays using image software analysis. 

Featured Adipokine and Adipogenesis Products

Detection of FABP4 in mature adipocytes differentiated from rat MSCs using Rat StemXVivo® Osteogenic/Adipogenic Base Media

StemXVivo™ Osteogenic/Adipogenic Base Media

Utilize our StemXVivo Osteogenic/Adipogenic Base Media and Adipogenic Supplement to efficiently and consistently drive the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. This defined media and supplement were specifically developed and optimized to induce adipogenesis in MSC cultures and reduce experimental variation.


Proteome Profiler Teaser Solo

Proteome Profiler Adipokine Arrays

The Proteome Profiler Human, Mouse, and Rat Adipokine Arrays offer a simple and inexpensive method to simultaneously analyze multiple analytes in a single sample, using chemiluminescence and standard Western blotting equipment. Utilize these multiplex membrane-base assays for your early stage adipokine discovery research.

Graphic depiction of an adipocyte

Adipogenesis Markers

Mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated in vitro into adipocytes, chondrocytes, or osteoblasts, which are then identified using antibodies against specific cell surface markers. Utilize our Pref-1 or FABP4 antibodies to detect either pre-adipocytes or mature, fully differentiated adipocytes, along with our wide selection of antibodies to analyze the expression of other adipocyte markers.

Featured Adipokine Resources

Illustration of a fat cell secreting the adipokine, Adiponectin

Adipokines and Insulin Signaling Pathway

Adipokines are bioactive products secreted by the adipose tissue that can have pro- or anti-inflammatory effects and enhance or inhibit insulin signaling. As a result, they may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin-related metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Explore the effects of different adipokines on insulin signaling using our interactive pathway.


Thumbnail image of Bio-Techne’s Metabolic Syndrome Signaling Poster

Metabolic Syndrome Signaling Poster

Developed in collaboration with Dr. Robert H. Lustig, University of California and Dr. Alejandro Gugliucci, Touro University-California, this poster provides a tour of the signaling events involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis, while highlighting the molecular dysfunctions at the core of metabolic syndrome.

Endocrine signals between the adipose tissue, pancrease, liver, and brain respond to food intake to regulate appetite and food consumption.

Adipokines and Metabolism

Adipokines are involved in regulating lipid metabolism, energy balance, and insulin signaling. Learn about our complete portfolio of products for studying lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and energy balance.