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TCR gamma/delta Antibody (B1)

Catalog # NBP2-62225 | Novus Biologicals a Bio-Techne Brand

Key Product Details

Species Reactivity

Human, Primate

Applications

Flow (Cell Surface), Flow Cytometry, Functional, Immunohistochemistry, Immunohistochemistry-Frozen, Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin

Label

Unconjugated

Antibody Source

Monoclonal Mouse IgG1 kappa Clone # B1

Concentration

Please see the vial label for concentration. If unlisted please contact technical services.

Product Summary for TCR gamma/delta Antibody (B1)

Immunogen

TCR gamma/delta, the subtype of T cell receptor expressed mainly in epithelial tissues and at the sites of infection.

Specificity

The mouse monoclonal antibody B1 (also known as B1.1) recognizes TCR gamma/delta, the subtype of T cell receptor expressed mainly in epithelial tissues and at the sites of infection.

Clonality

Monoclonal

Host

Mouse

Isotype

IgG1 kappa

Scientific Data Images for TCR gamma/delta Antibody (B1)

Flow (Cell Surface): TCR gamma/delta Antibody (B1) [NBP2-62225] - Surface staining of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with anti-human TCR gamma/delta (B1) purified, GAM-APC.
Flow (Cell Surface): TCR gamma/delta Antibody (B1) [NBP2-62225] - Surface staining of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with anti-human TCR gamma/delta (B1) FITC.
Flow (Cell Surface): TCR gamma/delta Antibody (B1) [NBP2-62225] - Surface staining of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with anti-human TCR gamma/delta (B1) PE.

Applications for TCR gamma/delta Antibody (B1)

Application
Recommended Usage

Flow Cytometry

1-4 ug/ml

Immunohistochemistry

1:10-1:500

Immunohistochemistry-Frozen

1:10-1:500

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin

1:10-1:500
Please Note: Optimal dilutions of this antibody should be experimentally determined.

Formulation, Preparation, and Storage

Purification

Protein A purified

Endotoxin Level

Endotoxin level is less than 0.01 EU/ug of the protein

Formulation

PBS (pH 7.4), 0.2 um filter sterilized

Preservative

No Preservative

Concentration

Please see the vial label for concentration. If unlisted please contact technical services.

Shipping

The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.

Stability & Storage

Store at 4C. Do not freeze.

Background: TCR gamma/delta

T cell Receptor (TCR) gamma delta belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is a heterodimer consisting of a TCR gamma and a TCR delta chain (1). TCR gamma delta is expressed on the plasma membrane of T cells and is involved in ligand-induced signaling and tumor cell killing (1). While TCR gamma delta has structural similarity to TCR alpha beta, each receptor is expressed on unique T cell lineages and have different mechanisms of ligand recognition (1,2). The TCR gamma and delta chains have a variable region and constant region (1). The variable region contains complementary determining regions (CDRs) that form the antigen binding site whereas the constant region contains an Ig-like domain, a connecting peptide, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail (1). TCR gamma delta T cells signal through the canonical T cell signaling complex, cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), to help mediate T cell activation (1).

In humans, T cells expressing TCR gamma delta represents ~1-5% of total T cells in the peripheral blood but can comprise up to 50% of lymphoid cells in peripheral tissues like the intestines or dermis (3). The TCR gamma delta lineage arises from the double negative 3 (DN3) (CD44-,CD25-) stage of development where the cells receive strong TCR signals for gamma/delta selection (2). In contrast to alpha/beta T cells which are CD4+/CD8+, most gamma delta T cells are CD4-/CD8- (2). Gamma delta T cells produce different cytokines in response to varying degrees of signal received through the gamma delta TCR: a weaker signal induces interleukin (IL)-17, a moderate signal induces interferon (IFN)-gamma, and a strong signal stimulates IL-4 production (2,4). There are multiple gamma delta T cell subsets which are defined by the variable segments of the gamma and delta chain present after gene rearrangement (1,3,5). For example, Vgamma9Vdelta2 (Vgamma9Vdelta2) TCRs are expressed on the main subset of gamma delta T cells in human blood (1,3,5). Human gamma delta T cells expressing Vgamma9Vdelta2 TCR recognizes phosphoantigens that are released by tumor cells (3). The phosphoantigens bind butyrophilin (BTN) family members, such as BTN3A1/CD277, that are expressed on tumor cells and this interaction helps stimulate gamma delta T cell activation and tumor recognition (3). Considering their role in tumor recognition and killing, gamma delta T cells and the TCRs may be leveraged for cancer immunotherapies (3,4,6). Strategies for utilizing gamma delta T cells in immunotherapy include chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) transduction in gamma delta T cells, in vivo activation of gamma delta cells with anti-BTN3A1 monoclonal antibodies, or bispecific gamma delta T cell engagers (6).

References

1. Morath, A., & Schamel, W. W. (2020). AB and GD T cell receptors: similar but different. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 107(6), 1045-1055. https://doi.org/10.1002/JLB.2MR1219-233R

2. Zarin, P., Chen, E. L., In, T. S., Anderson, M. K., & Zuniga-Pflucker, J. C. (2015). Gamma delta T-cell differentiation and effector function programming, TCR signal strength, when and how much?. Cellular Immunology, 296(1), 70-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2015.03.007

3. Silva-Santos, B., Serre, K., & Norell, H. (2015). GD T cells in cancer. Nature Reviews. Immunology, 15(11), 683-691. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri3904

4. Hahn, A. M., & Winkler, T. H. (2020). Resolving the mystery-How TCR transgenic mouse models shed light on the elusive case of gamma delta T cells. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 107(6), 993-1007. https://doi.org/10.1002/JLB.1MR0120-237R

5. Fichtner, A. S., Ravens, S., & Prinz, I. (2020). Human GD TCR repertoires in health and disease. Cells, 9(4), 800. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040800

6. Kabelitz, D., Serrano, R., Kouakanou, L., Peters, C., & Kalyan, S. (2020). Cancer immunotherapy with gammadelta T cells: many paths ahead of us. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 17(9), 925-939. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0504-x

Alternate Names

delta polypeptide, T3D, TiT3

Gene Symbol

TRG

Product Documents for TCR gamma/delta Antibody (B1)

Certificate of Analysis

To download a Certificate of Analysis, please enter a lot number in the search box below.

Product Specific Notices for TCR gamma/delta Antibody (B1)

This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.

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