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LC3B Antibody (1251A) - BSA Free

Catalog # NBP2-46892 | Novus Biologicals a Bio-Techne Brand
Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody.

Key Product Details

Validated by

Knockout/Knockdown, Biological Validation

Species Reactivity

Human, Mouse, Rat


Flow (Intracellular), Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Immunohistochemistry-Frozen, Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin, Immunoprecipitation, Knockout Validated, Western Blot



Antibody Source

Recombinant Monoclonal Rabbit IgG Clone # 1251A


BSA Free


1.0 mg/ml

Product Summary for LC3B Antibody (1251A) - BSA Free


Recombinant monoclonal LC3B Antibody (1251A) was made to a synthetic peptide made to an N-terminal portion of the human LC3B protein sequence (between residues 1-100). [UniProt# Q9GZQ8].

Predicted Species

Bat (100%), Bovine (100%), Fish (100%), Porcine (100%), Xenopus (94%), Zebrafish (100%). Backed by our 100% Guarantee.

Reactivity Notes

Mouse and Rat reactivity reported from verified customer reviews.


Type I form of LC3B is cytoplasmic, whereas the type II form of LC3B binds to the autophagic membranes.









Theoretical MW

14.688 kDa.
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.

Scientific Data Images for LC3B Antibody (1251A) - BSA Free

Knockout Validated: LC3B Antibody (1251A) [NBP2-46892] - Western Blot analysis shows lysates of HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma parental cell line and LC3B knockout HeLa cell line (KO) untreated (-) or treated (+) with 50 uM Chloroquine for 18 hours. PVDF (Polyvinylidene difluoride) membrane was probed with 2.0 ug/mL of Rabbit Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat LC3B Monoclonal Antibody (1251A) [Catalog # NBP2-46892] followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Rabbit IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog# HAF008). A specific band was detected for LC3B at a molecular weight of approximately 15 kDa (as indicated) in the parental HeLa cell line, but is not detectable in the knockout HeLa cell line. GAPDH is shown as a loading control. This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions.
Knockout Validated: LC3B Antibody (1251A) [NBP2-46892] - LC3B was detected in immersion fixed Chloroquine treated Hela cells (left) but was not detected in LC3B knockout Hela cells (right) using rabbit anti-human LC3B monoclonal antibody (1251A) [Catalog #NBP2-46892] at 0.3 ug/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Rabbit IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL004) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm.
Western Blot: LC3B Antibody (1251A) [NBP2-46892] - The expression of LC3B in rat tissue. This image was submitted via customer Review.

Applications for LC3B Antibody (1251A) - BSA Free

Recommended Usage

Flow (Intracellular)

1 - 2.5 ug/mL

Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence

10-20 ug/ml




reported in scientific literature (PMID 32278100)




2-10 ug
Application Notes
In WB this LC3B recombinant monoclonal antibody detects both LC3B I and LC3B II with chloroquine treatment. With ICC autophagosome staining was observed after treatment with chloroquine.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions of this antibody should be experimentally determined.

Reviewed Applications

Read 3 reviews rated 5 using NBP2-46892 in the following applications:

Published Applications

Read 12 publications using NBP2-46892 in the following applications:

Formulation, Preparation, and Storage


Protein G purified




BSA Free


0.02% Sodium Azide


1.0 mg/ml


The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.

Stability & Storage

Store at 4C short term. Aliquot and store at -20C long term. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles.

Background: LC3B

Autophagy (macroautophagy) is a catabolic process which targets intracellular components such as proteins and organelles for degradation. Originally described as a bulk degradation process, current research supports its selective nature (1). Selective autophagy targets specific cellular components for degradation including the endoplasmic reticulum (2) (ER-phagy), mitochondria (3) (mitophagy), peroxisomes (3) (pexophagy), ribosomes (4) (ribophagy) and bacteria (5) (xenophagy). Autophagy relies on a newly formed phagophore, a membrane structure which elongates, sequesters cellular content, and fuses to form a double membrane vesicle known as the autophagosome. Fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes gives rise to the autophagolysosome, where cellular components are degraded by lysosome hydrolases (1).

Autophagic flux is supported by autophagy-related proteins (Atgs) initially identified in yeast (6,7). The core autophagy machinery is comprised of 17 Atg proteins that play specific roles in autophagosome formation. Among these Atg proteins, Atg8 is not only involved in autophagosome formation but also functions in cargo selection. In mammals, several Atg8 homologues have been identified including microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha, beta and gamma - LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C (8) respectively, as well as GABA type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), GABARAP-Like1, and GABARAP-Like2 (9). LC3 (predicted molecular weight 14kD) is ubiquitously expressed and undergoes posttranslational processing after synthesis. First, the cysteine protease Atg4 cleaves a carboxy terminal sequence to generate the cytosolic form LC3-I. Next, E1-like (Atg7) and E2-like (Atg3) enzymes conjugate phosphatidylethanolamine to the newly exposed carboxyterminal glycine, generating LC3-II. Finally, the Atg12-Atg5-Atg16L1 complex participates in LC3 lipidation and autophagosome formation (10). LC3B-I to LC3B-II conversion correlates with autophagosome number and is considered the best marker to monitor autophagy.


1. Yu, L., Chen, Y., & Tooze, S. A. (2018). Autophagy pathway: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Autophagy.

2. Forrester, A., De Leonibus, C., Grumati, P., Fasana, E., Piemontese, M., Staiano, L., ... Settembre, C. (2019). A selective ER -phagy exerts procollagen quality control via a Calnexin- FAM 134B complex. The EMBO Journal.

3. He, X., Zhu, Y., Zhang, Y., Geng, Y., Gong, J., Geng, J., ... Zhong, H. (2019). RNF34 functions in immunity and selective mitophagy by targeting MAVS for autophagic degradation. The EMBO Journal.

4. Mathai, B., Meijer, A., & Simonsen, A. (2017). Studying Autophagy in Zebrafish. Cells.

5. Losier, T. T., Akuma, M., McKee-Muir, O. C., LeBlond, N. D., Suk, Y., Alsaadi, R. M., ... Russell, R. C. (2019). AMPK Promotes Xenophagy through Priming of Autophagic Kinases upon Detection of Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles. Cell Reports.

6. Nakatogawa, H., Suzuki, K., Kamada, Y., & Ohsumi, Y. (2009). Dynamics and diversity in autophagy mechanisms: Lessons from yeast. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology.

7. Tsukada, M., & Ohsumi, Y. (1993). Isolation and characterization of autophagy-defective mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Letters.

8. Wild, P., McEwan, D. G., & Dikic, I. (2014). The LC3 interactome at a glance. Journal of Cell Science.

9. Igloi, G. L. (2001). Cloning, expression patterns, and chromosome localization of three human and two mouse homologues of GABAA receptor-associated protein. Genomics.

10. Glick, D., Barth, S., & Macleod, K. F. (2010). Autophagy: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Journal of Pathology.

Long Name

Microtubule-associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 beta

Alternate Names

Apg8b, ATG8F, LC3II, MAP1LC3B, LC3B monoclonal

Entrez Gene IDs

81631 (Human); 67443 (Mouse); 64862 (Rat)

Gene Symbol



Product Documents for LC3B Antibody (1251A) - BSA Free

Certificate of Analysis

To download a Certificate of Analysis, please enter a lot number in the search box below.

Product Specific Notices for LC3B Antibody (1251A) - BSA Free

This product is for research use only and is not approved for use in humans or in clinical diagnosis. Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt.



View specific protocols for LC3B Antibody (1251A) - BSA Free (NBP2-46892):

LC3B Antibody (1251A):
Immunocytochemistry Protocol

Culture cells to appropriate density in 35 mm culture dishes or 6-well plates.

1. Remove culture medium and add 10% formalin to the dish. Fix at room temperature for 30 minutes.
2. Remove the formalin and add ice cold methanol. Incubate for 5-10 minutes.
3. Remove methanol and add washing solution (i.e. PBS). Be sure to not let the specimen dry out. Wash three times for 10 minutes.
4. To block nonspecific antibody binding incubate in 10% normal goat serum from 1 hour to overnight at room temperature.
5. Add primary antibody at appropriate dilution and incubate at room temperature from 2 hours to overnight at room temperature.
6. Remove primary antibody and replace with washing solution. Wash three times for 10 minutes.
7. Add secondary antibody at appropriate dilution. Incubate for 1 hour at room temperature.
8. Remove antibody and replace with wash solution, then wash for 10 minutes. Add Hoechst 33258 to wash solution at 1:25,0000 and incubate for 10 minutes. Wash a third time for 10 minutes.
9. Cells can be viewed directly after washing. The plates can also be stored in PBS containing Azide covered in Parafilm (TM). Cells can also be cover-slipped using Fluoromount, with appropriate sealing.

*The above information is only intended as a guide. The researcher should determine what protocol best meets their needs. Please follow safe laboratory procedures.
LC3B Antibody (1251A):
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin Embedded Sections

Antigen Unmasking:
Bring slides to a boil in 10 mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 6.0) then maintain at a sub-boiling temperature for 10 minutes. Cool slides on bench-top for 30 minutes.

1. Wash sections in deionized water three times for 5 minutes each.
2. Wash sections in wash buffer for 5 minutes.
3. Block each section with 100-400 ul blocking solution for 1 hour at room temperature.
4. Remove blocking solution and add 100-400 ul diluted primary antibody. Incubate overnight at 4 C.
5. Remove antibody solution and wash sections in wash buffer three times for 5 minutes each.
6. Add 100-400 ul biotinylated diluted secondary antibody. Incubate 30 minutes at room temperature.
7. Remove secondary antibody solution and wash sections three times with wash buffer for 5 minutes each.
8. Add 100-400 ul Streptavidin-HRP reagent to each section and incubate for 30 minutes at room temperature.
9. Wash sections three times in wash buffer for 5 minutes each.
10. Add 100-400 ul DAB substrate to each section and monitor staining closely.
11. As soon as the sections develop, immerse slides in deionized water.
12. Counterstain sections in hematoxylin.
13. Wash sections in deionized water two times for 5 minutes each.
14. Dehydrate sections.
15. Mount coverslips.

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Protocol: Inhibition of Autophagy and LC3 Antibody (NBP2-46892) Western Blot


Chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) (10 mM) in dH2O
Sample buffer, 2X Laemmli buffer: 4% SDS, 5% 2-mercaptoethanol (BME), 20% glycerol, 0.004% bromophenol blue, 0.125 M Tris HCl, pH 6.8
RIPA buffer: 150 mM NaCl, 1% NP-40 or Triton X-100, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5
1X Running Buffer: 25 mM Tris-base, 192 mM glycine, 0.1% SDS. Adjust to pH 8.3
1X Transfer buffer (wet): 25 mM Tris-base, 192 mM glycine, 20% methanol, Adjust to pH 8.3
TBST, TBS and 0.1% Tween
Blocking solution: TBST, 5% non-fat dry milk
rabbit anti-LC3 primary antibody (NBP2-46892) in blocking buffer (~2 ug/mL)


Tip: For more information on Western Blotting, see our Western Blot handbook.

1. Grow cells (e.g. HeLa or Neuro2A) in vitro to semi-confluency (70-75%).

2. Add CQ to culture dishes to a final concentration of 50 uM and incubate overnight (16 hours). Remember to include an untreated sample as a negative control.
Note: Validated autophagy inducers should be included as positive controls.

3. Rinse cells with ice-cold 1X PBS and lyse cells with sample buffer.
Note: LC3-I and LC3-II are sensitive to degradation, although LC3-I is more labile. These proteins are sensitive to freeze-thaw cycles and SDS sample buffers. Fresh samples should be analyzed quickly to prevent protein degradation.

4. Sonicate and incubate cells for 5 minutes at 95oC.
Tip: Cells are lysed directly in sample buffer or may be lysed in RIPA buffer.

5. Load samples of Chloroquine-treated and -untreated cell lysates 40 ug/lane on a 4-20% polyacrylamide gradient gel (SDS-PAGE).
Tip: For detection of LC3 it is particularly important to monitor the progress of the gel as this protein is relatively small (~14kDa).

Tip: Alternatively, for non-gradient gels, use a 20% polyacrylamide gel.

6. Transfer proteins to a 0.2 um PVDF membrane for 30 minutes at 100V.

7. After transfer, rinse the membrane with dH2O and stain with Ponceau S for 1-2 minutes to confirm efficiency of protein transfer.

8. Rinse the membrane in dH2O to remove excess stain and mark the loaded lanes and molecular weight markers using a pencil.

9. Block the membrane using blocking buffer solution (5% non-fat dry milk in TBST) for 1 hour at room temperature.

10.Rinse the membrane with TBST for 5 minutes.

11.Dilute the rabbit anti-LC3 primary antibody (NBP2-46892) (~2 ug/mL) in blocking buffer and incubate the membrane for 1 hour at room temperature.

12.Rinse the membrane with dH2O.

13.Rinse the membrane with TBST, 3 times for 10 minutes each.

14.Incubate the membrane with diluted secondary antibody, according with product's specifications, (e.g. anti-rabbit-IgG HRP-conjugated) in blocking buffer for 1 hour at room temperature.
Note: Tween-20 may be added to the blocking or antibody dilution buffer at a final concentration of 0.05-0.2%, provided it does not interfere with antibody-antigen binding.

15.Rinse the membrane with TBST, 3 times for 10 minutes each.

16.Apply the detection reagent of choice (e.g. BioFX Super Plus ECL) in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

17.Image the blot.
Tip: LC3-I and it's lipidated form LC3-II have different electrophoretic mobility properties, with the lipidated form moving faster in an SDS-PAGE gel, albeit its larger molecular weight. LC3-II runs at 14-16 kDa while LC3-I runs at 16-18kDa.

Note: This assay measures the difference in the LC3-II signal in the presence and absence of inhibitors (e.g., lysosomotropic agents). When autophagic flux is present or induced in a system an increase in the LC3-II signal should be observed with the inhibitor.

FAQs for LC3B Antibody (1251A) - BSA Free

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  • Q: What should be the composition of the lysis buffer? How much protein should be loaded per lane? 

    A: We load 10 ug of total protein and the lysates are prepared in RIPA buffer. In addition, the gel must be 15-20% to maximize the resolution of LC3 and the membrane should be 0.2um PVDF.

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