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Porcine TGF-beta 2 Protein

Catalog # 102-B2 | R&D Systems, Inc. a Bio-Techne Brand
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Carrier Free
102-B2-001/CF

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With Carrier
102-B2-001

Key Product Details

Source

Porcine Platelets

Structure / Form

Disulfide-linked homodimer

Conjugate

Unconjugated

Applications

Bioactivity

Product Specifications

Source

Porcine platelet-derived TGF-beta 2 protein

Purity

>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.

Endotoxin Level

<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.

SDS-PAGE

12 kDa, reducing conditions

Activity

Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389.
The ED50 for this effect is 0.03-0.18 ng/mL.

Formulation, Preparation and Storage

Carrier Free
What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

Carrier: 102-B2
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 1 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Carrier Free: 102-B2/CF
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 10 µg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: TGF-beta 2

TGF-beta 2 (transforming growth factor beta 2) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta  superfamily that share a characteristic cysteine knot structure (1 - 7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1 - 4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions; for TGF-beta 2, mice with targeted deletion show defects in development of cardiac, lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear and urogenital systems (2). Porcine TGF-beta 2 cDNA encodes a 435 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 19 aa signal peptide and a 416 aa proprotein (8). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N-terminal 232 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF-  beta2 (8, 9). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 2 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (8 - 10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF-beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature porcine TGF-beta 2 shows 100% aa identity with human, dog, horse and cow TGF-beta 2, and 97% aa identity with mouse and rat TGF-beta 2. It demonstrates cross-species activity (1). TGF-beta 2 signaling begins with binding to a complex of the accessory receptor betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta  RIII) and a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF-beta  RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates another ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF-beta  RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or alternatively, ALK-1.The whole complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Use of other signaling pathways that are Smad-independent allows for disparate actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts (11).

References

  1. Sporn, M.B. (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:3.
  2. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
  6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
  7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
  8. Cheifetz, S. et al. (1987) Cell 48:409.
  9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
  10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
  12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.

Long Name

Transforming Growth Factor beta 2

Alternate Names

TGFB2, TGFbeta 2

Entrez Gene IDs

7042 (Human); 21808 (Mouse); 397084 (Porcine)

Gene Symbol

TGFB2

Product Documents for Porcine TGF-beta 2 Protein

Certificate of Analysis

To download a Certificate of Analysis, please enter a lot number in the search box below.

Note: Certificate of Analysis not available for kit components.

Product Specific Notices for Porcine TGF-beta 2 Protein

For research use only

Citations for Porcine TGF-beta 2 Protein (8)

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FAQs for Porcine TGF-beta 2 Protein

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  • Q: What is the molecular weight of porcine TGF-beta 2 on a Western blot?

    A: Under reducing conditions, TGF-beta 2 appears at 12.5 kDa, and under non-reducing conditions at 25 kDa.

  • Q: What is the molecular weight of porcine TGF-beta 2 on a Western blot?

    A: Under reducing conditions, TGF-beta 2 appears at 12.5 kDa, and under non-reducing conditions at 25 kDa.

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