The Vasculature in Inflammation

In response to mechanical stress, damage, or disease, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells upregulate many pro-inflammatory molecules. Chemokines promote the attraction of immune cells to the stressed area, adhesion proteins tether them in place, and cytokines and prostanoids promote their activation. Dysfunctional vascular cells also secrete proteases and morphogens to enhance tissue remodeling, and they upregulate cell surface proteins that reinforce their own inflammatory responses.

Activated vascular cells secrete chemokines that attract inflammatory immune cells expressing chemokine receptors. Chemokines of the CCL (-2/MCP-1, -3/MIP-1α, -4/MIP-1β, -5/RANTES, -8/MCP-2, -11/Eotaxin, -19/MIP-3β, -20/MIP-3α, -22/MDC) and CXCL (-1/KC, -2/MIP-2, -3/GROγ, -8/IL-8, -9/MIG, -10/IP-10, -16) families as well as CX3CL1/Fractalkine are inolved in this process.

Multianalyte Immunoassays

These assay platforms let you detect many proteins in one experiment. They are optimized to detect chemokines with high sensitivity, low background, and minimal cross-reactivity.

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Chemokines

In order for circulating leukocytes to reach sites of tissue inflammation, they need to attach to regions of vascular endothelium near the infection or damaged tissue. Attachment is mediated by many adhesion proteins upregulated on activated endothelial cells, including Ig superfamily proteins (e.g. CD31, ICAM-1, VCAM-1), Integrins (e.g. αL/CD11a, αM/CD11b, αMβ2, αXβ2), and E-Selectin.

Multianalyte Immunoassays

These assay platforms let you detect many proteins in one experiment. They are optimized to detect analytes with high sensitivity, low background, and minimal cross-reactivity.

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Adhesion

Activated vascular cells secrete multiple cytokines that regulate inflammation by contributing to the activation and differentiation of immune cells. In particular, T cell, macrophage, monocyte, dendritic cell, and neutrophil activation is highly responsive to vascular derived IFN-gamma, IL-6, -10, -17, -18, M-CSF, and TNF-alpha.

Multianalyte Immunoassays

These assay platforms let you detect many proteins in one experiment. They are optimized to detect cytokines with high sensitivity, low background, and minimal cross-reactivity.

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Cytokines

Vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells release prostanoids under stress conditions. Among these inflammatory mediators, Prostaglandins PGD2 and PGE2 as well as Thromboxanes TXA2 and TXB2 promote inflammation through interactions with their 7-TM receptors expressed on immune cells and the vasculature itself.

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Prostanoids

Tissue remodeling during angiogenesis, embryonic development, and wound healing involves matrix metalloproteases (e.g. MMP-1, -3, -9) to break down extracellular matrix and adhesive contacts, morphogenetic factors (e.g. BMP-2, -4, Noggin), to induce progenitor cell differentiation, and growth factors to promote cell proliferation (e.g. FGF basic, PDGF).

Multianalyte Immunoassays

These assay platforms let you detect many proteins in one experiment. They are optimized to detect analytes with high sensitivity, low background, and minimal cross-reactivity.

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Morphogens

Toll-like Receptors (TLRs), receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE/AGER), IL-6R alpha, CD40, and CD40 Ligand are expressed on vascular endothelial or smooth muscle cells. Their activation during inflammation or cell stress enhances the inflammatory response within the vasculature.

Multianalyte Immunoassays

These assay platforms let you detect many proteins in one experiment. They are optimized to detect analytes with high sensitivity, low background, and minimal cross-reactivity.

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Proinflammatory Receptors